Content: This course attempts to develop certain perspectives with regard to the sociocultural study of the modern nation-state while at the same time noting their ramifications for a reassessment of prevailing concepts of ethnicity and identity and suggesting possible avenues for future empirical research. Both nationalism and the state have been intense topics of discussion in the social scientific literature. While interdisciplinary in approach, this course intends to focus mainly on the cultural and ethnic dimensions of the nation-state rather than its politico-institutional features per se, insofar as the latter impinges on the former. It will also be historically sensitive and cross-cultural in scope, as a means of differentiating the generalities and specificities of nation-state formation. Due to the expanding nature of the literature, it may be necessary to substitute newer readings and topics as they become available and relevant.
Format: The first week will be devoted to an overview of the problematic followed by a description of subsequent topics of discussion. Each topic will roughly cover a week's work, although this may in practice vary according to the respective length and density of the readings themselves. This will leave about four weeks for oral presentation of research papers. Presentations may take any of these forms: a) literature review of a specialized topic of interest or b) detailed, critical commentary on a monograph not explicitly discussed in class lectures. Oral presentations should ideally serve as proposals or outlines for a larger term paper to be turned in at the conclusion of the course. The first half of each class session will be devoted to a short presentation by the lecturer and followed by open discussion. The class lecture will revolve closely around assigned syllabus readings. I expect also that people will participate actively in class discussions by referring to recommended and other related readings to supplement and challenge points already raised. Oral and written performance will thus contribute to the overall course marks.
Course Reading List
1) General Theoretical Paradigms and Literature Reviews:
*Renan, E., 1990, What is a Nation? In H.K. Bhabha ed., Nations and Narration.
+Breuilly, J., 1996, Approaches to Nationalism, in G. Balakrishnan ed., Mapping the Nation.
+Benjamin, G., 1988, The Unseen Presence: A Theory of the Nation-State and Its Mystifications, Working Paper, National University of Singapore.
Segal, D.A., 1988, Nationalism, Comparatively Speaking, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(3).
2) The Nation as "Cultural Revolution":
*Anderson, B., 1993, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, 2nd edition.
+Goswami, M., 2002, Rethinking the Modular Nation Form: Toward a Sociohistorical Conception of Nationalism, Comparative Studies in Society and History 44(4).
Nairn, T., 1981, The Modern Janus, in The Breakup of Britain: Crisis and Neo-Nationalism, 2nd edition, Ch.9.
Rafael, V.L., 1990, Nationalism, Imagery and the Filipino Intelligentsia in the 19th Century, Critical Inquiry 16(3).
3) The State as "Cultural Revolution":
*Abrams, P., 1988, Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(1).
*Corrigan, P. and D. Sayer, 1991, The Great Arch: English State Formation as Cultural Revolution, 2nd edition.
+Steinmetz, G., 1999, Introduction to Culture and the State, in State/Culture: State-formation after the Cultural Turn.
Corrigan, P. and D. Sayer, 1987, From ‘The Body Politic’ to ‘The National Interest’: English State Formation in Comparative and Historical Perspective (An Argument Concerning Politically Organized Subjection). (manuscript)
4) The Crisis of Culture in the Emergence of the Nation-State:
*Gellner, E., 1983, Nations and Nationalism, Chs. 1-4. [國族與國族主義，聯經，2000。]
*Balibar, E., 1991, The Nation Form: History and Ideology, in E. Balibar and I. Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities.
+James, P., 2000, The Nation as an Abstract Community, in Nation Formation, Ch.1.
+Herzfeld, M., 1997, Of Definitions and Boundaries: The Status of Culture in the Culture of the State, in Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics in the Nation-State, Ch.2.
Fox, R.G. ed., 1990, Nationalist Ideologies and the Production of National Cultures.
5) The Problem of Ethnicity in the Integration of National Cultures:
*Geertz, C., 1963, The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States, in Old Societies and New States.
*Hobsbawm, E.J., 1992, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth Reality.
+Thom, M., 1990, Tribes within Nations: The Ancient Germans and the History of Modern France, in H.K. Bhabha ed., Nations and Narration.
+Hroch, M., 1996, From National Movement to the Fully-formed Nation: The Nation-building Process in Europe, in Mapping the Nation.
Heusch, L. de, 2000, L’Ethnie: The Vicissitudes of a Concept, Social Anthropology 8(2).
Mislivetz, F., 1991, The Unfinished Revolutions of 1989: The Decline of the Nation-State? Social Research 58(4).
6) Colonialism and the Modernity of State Power:
*Cohn, B.S. and N.B. Dirks, 1988, Beyond the Fringe: the Nation-State, Colonialism and the Technologies of Power, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(2).
*Thomas, N., 1990, Sanitation and Seeing: The Creation of State Power in Early Colonial Fiji, Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(1).
+Cohn, B.S., 1984, The Census, Social Structure and Objectification in South Asia, Folk 26.
+Krishnan, K., 2000, Nation and Empire: English and British National Identity in Comparative Perspective, Theory and Society 29.
Cooper, F. and A.L. Stoler, 1989, Tensions of Empire: Colonial Control and Visions of Rule, American Ethnologist 16(4).
Comaroff, J. and J., 1989, The Colonization of Consciousness in South Africa, Economy and Society 18(3).
Spencer, J., 1990, Writing Within: Anthropology, Nationalism and Culture in Sri Lanka, Current Anthropology 31(3).
7) The Invention of Tradition and Politics of Kastom as Crisis of Modernity:
*Hobsbawm, E.J., and T.O. Ranger eds., 1983, The Invention of Tradition.
*Keesing, K.M. and R. Tonkinson eds., 1982, Reinventing Traditional Culture: The Politics of Kastom in Island Melanesia, Mankind 13(4).
+Hanson, A., 1989, The Making of the Maori: Culture Invention and Its Logic, American Anthropologist 91(4).
+Waldron, A., 1992, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth, Chapter ?
Bowen, J.R., 1986, On the Political Construction of Tradition: Gotong Royong in Indonesia, Journal of Asian Studies 45(3).
Linnekin, J., 1983, Defining Traditions: Variations on the Hawaiian Identity, American Ethnologist 10.
8) The Writing of Ideology in the Construction of State Authority:
*Jameson, F., 1981, On Interpretation, in The Political Unconscious, Ch.1.
+Gramsci, A., 1992, The State and Civil Society, in Prison Notebooks.
+Althusser, L., 1971, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus, in Lenin and Philosophy.
+Foucault, M., 1991, Politics and the Study of Discourse, in G. Burchell et al eds., The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality.
Dirks, N.B., 1990, History as a Sign of the Modern, Public Culture 2(2).
Linke, U., 1990, Folklore, Anthropology and the Government of Social Life, Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(1).
9) Nations in Search of Cultures:
*Wright, P., 1985, On Living in an Old Country: The National Past in Contemporary Britain.
*Herzfeld, M., 1982, Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology and the Making of Modern Greece.
+Chen, Xiaomei, 1992, Occidentalism as Counterdiscourse: 'He Shang' in Post-Mao China, Critical Inquiry 18.
+Shamsul A.B., 1996, Nations-of-Intent in Malaysia, in S. Tonnesson and H. Antloev eds., Asian Forms of the Nation.
Linnekin, J., 1990, The Politics of Culture in the Pacific, in J. Linnekin and L. Poyer eds., Cultural Identity and Ethnicity in the Pacific.
Thion, S., 1988, Remodeling Broken Images: Manipulation of Identities Towards and Beyond the Nation, An Asian Perspective, in Ethnicities and Nations.
10) Cultures in Search of Nations:
*Kapferer, B., 1989, “Nationalist Ideology and a Comparative Anthropology”, Ethnos 54(3-4).
*Handler, R., 1988, Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec.
+Gladney, D.C., 1991, Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic, Ch. 1.
+Grillo, R.D., 1980, Basques, Anti-Basques and the Moral Community, in 'Nation' and 'State' in Europe: Anthropological Perspectives.
Rata, E., 2001, The Indigenization of Ethnicity, in R. Prazniak and A. Dirlik eds., Places and Politics in an Age of Globalization.
Ree, J., 1991, Internationality: Britain and the Idea of National Identity, Culture and History 9-10.
11) Cultural Commoditization and Culture Industries:
*Benjamin, W., 1968, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (1936), in Illuminations.
*Horkheimer, M. and T.W. Adorno, 1989, “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” (1944), in Dialectic of Enlightenment.
+Hesmondhalgh, D., 2002, The Cultural Industries, Chapter 2.
+Ivy, M., 1995, Discourses of the Vanishing, Itineraries of Knowledge: Trans-figuring Japan.
Leong Wai-teng, 1989, Culture and the State: Manufacturing Traditions for Tourism, Critical Studies in Mass Communication 6(4).
Crouch, D. ed. 1999, Leisure/Tourism Geographies: Practices and Geographical Knowledge.
12) The Global Cultural Economy and Postmodern Diasporas:
*Appadurai, A., 1990, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, Public Culture 2(2).
*Schiller, N. et al, 1992, Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity and Nationalism Reconsidered.
+Bhabha, H.K., 1990, DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation, in Nation and Narration.
+Gupta, A., 1992, The Song of the Nonaligned World: Transnational Identities and the Reinscription of Space in Late Capitalism, Cultural Anthropology 7(1).
Featherstone, M. ed., 1990, Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity.
Lavie, S. and T. Swedenberg eds., 1999, Displacement, Diaspora and Geographies of Identity.
13) Case Study: Nationalism as Post-Colonialist Heritage
*Chatterjee, P., 1993, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories.
*Ahmad, A., 1992, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures.
+Lazarus, N., 1999, Nationalism and Cultural Practice in the Postcolonial World.
Comaroff, J. and J., 1991, Of Revelation and Revolution, vol.1.
14) Case Study: Peoplehood, Ideology and National Culture
*Weber, E., 1976, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914.
*Verdery, K., 1991, National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu’s Romania.
+Borneman, J., 1992, Belonging in the Two Berlins: Kin, State, Nation.
Dominguez, V.R., 1989, People as Subject, People as Object: Selfhood and Peoplehood in Contemporary Israel.
15) Case Study: The Politics of Ethnic Separatism
*Hechter, M., 1975, Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536-1966.
*Kapferer, B., 1988, Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia.
+Hroch, M., 1985, Social Conditions of National Revival in Europe.
Tambiah, S.J., 1986, Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy.
16) Case Study: Community in National and Post-national Perspective
*James, P., 1997, Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community.
*Castells, M., 1997, The Power of Identity.
+Billig, M., 1995, Banal Nationalism.
Elias, N., 1982, Power and Civility.
W1: Carr, E.H., 1968, Nationalism and After (1945).
Kohn, H., 1967, The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background (1945).
Shafer, B.C., 1968, Nationalism: Myth and Reality (1955).
Kedourie, E., 1994, Nationalism (1960).
Emerson, R., 1967, From Empire to Nation: The Rise to Self-assertion of Asian and African Peoples.
Minogue, K., 1967, Nationalism.
Kamenka, E., 1973, Nationalism: the Nature and Evolution of an Idea.
Tilly, C., 1975, The Formation of National States in Western Europe.
Seton-Watson, H., 1977, Nations and States: An Enquiry into the Origins of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism.
Breuilly, J., 1994, Nationalism and the State (1982).
W2: Greenfield, L., 1992, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity.
Brubaker, R., 1992, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany.
Kristeva, J., 1993, Nations without Nationalism.
Rodgers, S., 1991, Imagining Tradition, Imagining Modernity: A Southern Batak Novel from the 1920s, Bijdragen tot de Taal‑, Land‑ en Volkenkunde 147(2‑3).
Balakrishnan, G., ed., 1996, Mapping the Nation.
W3: Mann, M., 1993, The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Classes and Nation-states, 1760-1914.
Poulantzas, N., 2000, State, Power, Socialism (1978).
Giddens, A., 1985, The Nation-state and Violence.
Sayer, D., 1992, A Notable Administration: English State Formation and the Rise of Capitalism, American Journal of Sociology.
Aylmer, G.E., 1990, The Peculiarities of the English State, Journal of Historical Sociology 3(2).
W4: Philibert, J-M., 1986, The Politics of Tradition: Toward a Generic Culture in Vanuatu, Mankind 16(1).
Hirsch, E., 1990, From Bones to Betelnuts: Processes of Ritual Transformation and the Development of 'National Culture' in Papua New Guinea, Man 25(1).
Comaroff, J.L., 1991, Humanity, Ethnicity, Nationality: Conceptual and Comparative Perspectives on the U.S.S.R., Theory and Society 20(5).
Nairn, T., 1997, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited.
Bennett, D. ed., 1998, Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity.
Tonnesson, S. and H. Antlov ed., 1996, Asian Forms of the Nation.
W5: Smith, A.D., 1986, The Ethnic Origins of Nations.
Grillo, R.D. ed., 1980, 'Nation' and 'State' in Europe: Anthropological Perspectives.
Varese, S., 1988, Multiethnicity and Hegemonic Construction: Indian Plans and the Future, in Ethnicities and Nations.
Kammerer, C.A., 1988, Territorial Imperatives: Akha Ethnic Identity and Thailand's National Integration, in Ethnicities and Nations.
Thomas, N., 1990, Regional Politics, Ethnicity and Custom in Fiji, The Contemporary Pacific 2(1).
Comaroff, J.L., 1987, Of Totemism and Ethnicity: Consciousness, Practice and the Signs of Inequality, Ethnos 52(3-4).
Kelly, J.D., 1988, Fiji Indians and Political Discourse in Fiji: From the Pacific Romance to the Coups, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(4).
Yoshino, K. ed., 1999, Consuming Ethnicity and Nationalism: Asian Experiences.
W6: Stoler, A.L., 1989, Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th Century Colonial Cultures, American Ethnologist 16(4).
Chatterjee, P., 1986, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse.
Barnett, M.R., 1976, The Politics of Cultural Nationalism in South India.
Spivak, G., 1989, Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography. In In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics.
Comaroff, J. and J., 1988, Through the Looking Glass: Colonial Encounters of the First Kind, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(1).
Coronil, F. and J. Skurski, 1991, Disremembering and Remembering the Nation: The Semantics of Political Violence in Venezuela, Comparative Studies in History and Society 33(2).
Murray, S., 1997, Not on Any Map: Essays on Postcoloniality and Cultural Nationalism.
W7: Rasnake, R., 1986, Carnaval in Yura: Ritual Reflections on Ayllu and State Relations, American Ethnologist 13(4).
Handler, R. and J. Linnekin, 1984, Tradition, Genuine or Spurious, Journal of American Folklore 97.
Toren, C., 1988, Making the Present, Revealing the Past: The Mutability and Continuity of Tradition as Process, Man 23(3).
Keesing, K.M., 1989, Creating the Past: Custom and Identity in the Contemporary Pacific, The Contemporary Pacific 1(1-2).
Babadzan, A., 1988, Kastom and Nation-Building in the South Pacific, in Ethnicities and Nations.
Kaplan, M., 1989, Luve Ni Wai as the British Saw It: Constructions of Custom and Disorder in Colonial Fiji, Ethnohistory 36(4).
W8: Thomas, N., 1992, Substantivization and Anthropological Discourse: The Transformation of Practices into Institutions in Neotraditional Pacific Societies, in J. Carrier ed. History and Tradition in Melanesian Anthropology.
Cohn, B.S., 1996, The Anthropology of a Colonial State and Its Forms of Knowledge, in Colonialism and its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India.
Alonso, A.M., 1988, The Effects of Truth: Re-presentations of the Past and the Imagining of Community, Journal of Historical Sociology 1(1).
Freitag, S.B., 1989, Popular Culture in the Rewriting of History: An Essay in Comparative History and Historiography, Peasant Studies 16(3).
Ashforth, A., 1990, Reckoning Schemes of Legitimation: On Commissions of Inquiry as Power/Knowledge Forms, Journal of Historical Sociology 3(1).
Brow, J., 1988, In Pursuit of Hegemony: Representations of Authority and Justice in a Sri Lankan Village. American Ethnologist 15(2).
Malkki, L., 1990, Context and Consciousness: Local Conditions for the Production of Historical and National Thought among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania, in R.G. Fox ed., Nationalist Ideologies and the Production of National Cultures.
W9: Ostergard, U., 1991, 'Denationalizing' National History: The Comparative Study of Nation-States, Culture and History 9/10.
Hoskins, J., 1987, The Headhunter as Hero: Local Traditions and Their Reinterpretation in National History, American Ethnologist 14(4).
Balibar, E. and I. Wallerstein, 1991, Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities.
Dominguez, V.R., 1990, The Politics of Heritage in Contemporary Israel, in R.G. Fox ed., Nationalist Ideologies and the Production of National Cultures.
Spiegel, A.D., 1989, Towards an Understanding of Tradition: Uses of Traditional in Apartheid South Africa, Critique of Anthropology 9(1).
Whisnant, D.E., 1983, All That is Native and Fine: The Politics of Culture in an American Region.
W10: Magenda, B.D., 1988, Ethnicity and State-Building in Indonesia: The Cultural Base of the New Order, in Ethnicities and Nations.
Llobera, J.R., 1989, Catalan National Identity: The Dialects of Past and Present, Critique of Anthropology 10(2-3).
Ostergard, U., 1992, Peasants and Danes: The Danish National Identity and Political Culture, Comparative Studies in History and Society 34(1).
Pratt, J., 1980, A Sense of Place, in 'Nation' and 'State' in Europe: Anthropological Perspectives.
Nairn, T., 1981, The Break-up of Britain: Crisis and Neo-nationalism, 2nd edition.
Unger, J. ed., 1996, Chinese Nationalism.
Mudimbe, V.Y. ed., 1997, Nations, Identities, Cultures.
W11: Cohn, B.S., 1985, The Transformation of Objects into Artifacts: Antiquities and Art in 19th Century India. In Patronage in Indian Culture.
Cole, D., 1985, Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts.
Wernick, A., 1991, Global Promo: The Cultural Triumph of Exchange, Theory, Culture and Society 8(1).
Greenwood, D.J., 1980, Culture by the Pound: An Anthropological Perspective on Tourism as Cultural Commodification.
Stocking, G. ed., 1985, Objects and Others.
Kaeppler, A.L., 1986, Pacific Festivals and the Promotion of Identity, Politics and Tourism, in Come Mek Me Hol' Yu Han': The Impact of Tourism on Tourism on Traditional Music.
Errington, F., 1987, Reflexivity Deflected: The Festival of Nations as an American Cultural Performance, American Ethnologist 14(4).
Orvell, M., 1989, The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture.
Sears, J.F., 1989, Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the 19th Century.
Rydell, R.W., 1984, All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions.
Marchand, R., 1985, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-40.
Cunningham, S., 2002, From Cultural to Creative Industries: Theory, Industry and Policy Implications, Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy 102: 54-65.
Hesmondhalgh, D., 2002, The Cultural Industries.
Thomas, N., 1989, Material Culture and Colonial Power: Ethnological Collecting and the Establishment of Colonial Rule in Fiji, Man 24(1).
W12: Malkki, L., 1992, National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity among Scholars and Refugees, Cultural Anthropology 7(1).
Friedman, J., 1990, “Being in the World: Globalization and Localization”, Theory Culture & Society 7(2-3).
Basch, L. et al, 1994, Introduction, Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States.
Mignolo, W.D., 2000, “The Many Faces of Cosmo-polis: Border Thinking and Critical Cosmopolitanism”, Public Culture 12(3).
Hardt, M. and A. Negri, 2000, Empire.
Smith, M.A. and P. Pollock eds., 1999, Communities in Cyberspace.